JOURNAL DE BORD DE LA TRAVERSEE

Catégorie : LIVONIA

Antique Print of 1871 Yacht Races New York Livonia DauntlessThe voyage of the Livonia

La traversée de l'Atlantique de Livonia a été très orageuse, et le temps pendant quelques jours a été particulièrement sévère pour la période de l'année, aboutissant à un ouragan sur la région, conditions bien connues des marins des « quarantièmes rugissants ».

Livonia est restée à la cape pendant 38 heures. Pourtant, malgré les forts vents de face et une grosse mer croisée, la goélette anglaise a fait merveille dans ces conditions comme on le verra dans son journal (pas traduit).

Log Of The Livonia. (Hunt's Yachting Magazine - Nov. 1871)

Saturday, Sept. 2nd.—At 5h. 30m. p.m. got under way from Cowes Roads under all plain sail, light airs of wind W.S.W.; 8h. p.m. brought up, Cowes Castle bearing S.E.h.E., Calshot Light E. five miles.

Sept. 3rd.—At 1h. a m. beat down Solent with light W.S.W.wind; grounded lightly, with an ebbing tide, on Pennington Spit, run out kedge anchor and when the yacht floated rode to it until Jh. p.m., when we weighed and with a fine W.S.W. breeze passed out of the Needles at 2h. 40m.; 4h. p.m. tacked off Bournemouth, and 5h. 30m. p.m. bore away to Portland for shelter; 8h. 40m. p.m brought up in the Roads, eight fathoms, 30 fathoms chain; strong wind W.S.W., hard rain.

Sept. 4th.—Strong wind W.S.W., gloomy sky; showery; unbent staysail and sent it on shore to be altered; evening chared away flue, wind veering to the N.W.

Sept. 5th.—Day begins with fine weather and light westerly winds; 9h. a.m. weighed anchor and proceeded to sea under all plain .sail, passing out of the passage in the Breakwater; 2h. p.m. rounded the Bill of Portland with light W.S.W. breezes, fine weather; 9h. p.m. tacked ship off Tynmouth, very fine evening with light westerly airs, veering northerly. This log contains 24 hours and ends at midnight, to commence the sea log kept according to civil time.

Sept. 6th.—Middle watch light winds and calms, very fine; morning watch weather overcast; 7h. a.m. Start Point north three miles, sent squaresnil yard aloft and rigged it; 11h. a.m. thick with rain; noon Eddystone bore W.S.W. four miles, boarded by a Plymouth trawler and got some fish, winds N.W , westerly; afternoon, hard rain and moderate wind; evening, cleared up and wind veered west; 8h. p.m., Lizards W.b.N. nine miles, first watch hard rain; 10h. 30m. p.m. tacked and stood in for land; midnight, clear Lizard lights, N.N.E. eight miles, moderate northerly breeze. Departure taken from here at midnight, the ship being then due south eight miles distant.

Sept. 7th.—Morning very fine, long head swell, 9h. a.m. tacked ship and ...venter shrouds; afternoon fresh wind and heavy head sea; 6h. p.m. ...bowsprit and shifted jibs; 8h. p.m. stowed foresail and took a single m mainsail, shipping a great quantity of water; signalled to a Dutch barque steering east; wind S.W., course S. 66° W., distance 74 miles; lat. at noon, by account, 49° 28'; by observation, 49° 30'; long, by account, 6° 56': by observation, 6° 47'.

Sept. 8th.— Middle watch, hard squalls of wind and rain; 2h. a.m. wind suddenly shifted to the northward; tacked ship; noon, still squally and heavy head sea ; afternoon same weather; midnight, moderate and fine, wind N. to N. W.; course N. 88° W.; distance 135 miles; lat. at noon by account, 49° 32'; by observation, 49° 30'; long, by account, 10° 20'; long, by observation, 10° 19'; altitude of polar star at 11h. 40m. p.m. gave 49° 14' N. lat.

Sept. 9th.—Fine and clear fresh breeze, N.N.W.; set foresail and out reef in mainsail; lOh. 40m. am. spoke the American barque Devonshire, nine days from Liverpool for Philadelphia. Afternoon,, fresh N.h.W. windj very hard squalls and a high head sea running; ship behaving well. Evening; fresh and clear; 9h. 30m. p.m. wind increasing, took in the foresail. Midnight, very squally, hauled down reef in mainsail. Lat. noon, 49° 10' by account; no observation; long, by account, 13° 14'; long, by chronometer, 13° 13' W.. course S. 79° W. Distance run 115 miles,

Sept. 10th.—Morning very squally and ugly sea running, and hard N.N.W. wind; noon, cloudy- 5h. 30m. p.m. carried away the bobstay fall; took the bowsprit in to last reef hole and used preventer bobstay; 6h. p.m. wind increasing, so shifted jibs, setting small one, and hauled down two more reefs in the mainsail; midnight, high wind, northerly, and nasty cross sea; lat. by account, 48° 39', lat. by observation, 48° 30'; long, by account, 18° 3', long, by chronometer 18° 11'; variation, 2 points; course, S. 81° W.; distance run, 195 miles.

Sept. 11th.— Morning, sea running truer and wind veeriug to N.b.E.; 11h. 40m. a.m. set the foresail and 3h. p.m. out reefs in mainsail. Evening fine and clear, wind moderating, sea going down. Midnight cloudy moderate breeze; by an amplitude of the sun variation observed to be three points W., at the same time long, by chronometer was 23° 18' W., lat. by account 48° 14'; no observation; long. by account 21° 50m'; course S. 80° W.; distance run 141 miles.

Sept. 12th.—Morning fine, moderate N.E. breezes-, rove bobstay fall, fitted new jib whips; 7h. a.m. out reef in mainsail; 10h. a.m. set the squaresail; noon fine and clear; evening overcast, light easterly winds - midnight, wind increasing and veering to the southward; cloudy sky; lat. by account, 48° 41'; lat. by observation 48° 32' N.; long, by account 25° 12'; long, by chronometer 25° 16' W.; course N. 79° W.; distance 138 miles.

Sept. 13th.—Morning fresh S.E. wind, passing showers; 1h. 40m. jibed to starboard; 7h. a,m„ showed commercial code letters to bark Asphodel, of Boston, and an English ship, both bound east; 10h. a.m., signalled Guion steamer, steaming east, set up preventer shrouds; afternoon showerv fresh southerly wind; evening, increasing wind, with thick rain, took in squaresail; midnight, strong winds, dirty weather, ship going splendidly; lat, by account, 49° N.; lat by observation, 48° 51' N.; long, by account, 28° 28'; long, by chronometer, 28° 35' W.; course N. 82° W.; distance run 130 miles.

Sept. 14th.—Morning S.W. wind slightly moderating, but a nasty cross sea running. 10h. a.m. in a heavy roll, snapped the foreboom, which cleared away, and set foresail, with sheets, 11h. 40m. a.m. carried away the after leech rope of the foresail; lowered down and stowed the sail; the starboard light screen washed away. Noon, thick with rain; wind strong, veering easterly; very heavy sea. 1h. p.m., took in three reefs of the mainsail. 4h. p.m., pitched away the bowsprit, which broke close into the spanshackle; hove to and cleared the wreck, and rigged out stump as far as possible; stowed the mainsail and double-reefed the trysail and set it; double-reefed the staysail and set small jih. 7h. p m. wind increased to a N.N.E. gale; took in jib and kept the ship hove to, with staysail sheet to the mast. Midnight blowing hard gale, with thick pelting rain; yacht making splendid weather, neither shipping much water nor rolling very heavy, and keeping up to the sea well, coming up to N.W.b.N., and falling off N.W.b.W., leeway 4 points, variation 3 1/4 W.; lat. by account 48° 56', long, by account 34° 26'. At noon no observation. Course N. 89° W. Distance run, 237 miles.

Sept. 15th.—Morning, wind and sea abating and gradually moderating; 8h. a.m., eased off the staysail sheet and sailed the vessel; 10h. am., out reefs staysail, repaired foresail and fitted jib pendants; noon, cleared off fine, with light N.W. breeze, fully occupied in overhauling and setting up gear, &c; evening, fine, breeze S.S.W., which continued to freshen until midnight; sea rapidly making. Variation, 36° W.; lat. by account, 84° 34'; lat, by observation, 48° 42' N.; long, by account, 36° 16'; long, by chronometer, 36° 25' W.; course a 74° W; distance 78 miles.

Sept. 16th.—Rapidly rising S.S. wester and cross sea; 4h. p.m., stowed the foresail; 7h. a.m. wind suddenly flew round to N.h.W., raining and blowing terriffically hard; while double reefing trysail the sail split, so lowered and stowed it, setting a storm staysail in its place; double reefed staysail, which was no sooner hauled up than it blew adrift from the spar; recovered it, however, and stowed it; the clew of the jib then blew clean out, the sail causing us a great deal of trouble to get aboard again, and then being all in tatters; set a small jib inside the forestay, with sheet hauled to the mast; in reefing the trysail W. Larkman, A.B., was disabled by the flapping canvas, somewhat badly in the hand and wrist; noon, blowing a hurricane, with thick blinding rain, and tremendous heavy sea running, ship behaving well through, everybody getting thoroughly drenched both on deck and below; evening, unaltered, a dark, dismal night before us; midnight, this frightful storm at its height; no observation taken; lat. by account, 48° 13. N.; long. 39° 54' W.; course S. 82° W.; distance 148 miles; wind throughout N.b.W.; leeway four points, ship coming up N.N.W., falling off to W.b.S.

Sept. 17th.—Five a.m., wind slightly moderating, squalls ofrain at intervals and clear sky; between 4h. 30m. a.m. set a jib-headed topsail for a fore-trysail, and at daylight cleared away wreck of gear, &c., mending trysail and other canvas; the bulwarks on the port bow burst out and canvas weather cloths on both sides ; noon, bright sun and clear sky, but still blowing very hard and sea tremendous ; afternoon, wind moderating and sea going down; 3h. p.m., sailed the vessel full and by, having been hove to 33 hours; evenins fine and clear, wind a fresh sailing northerly breeze, set double reefed staysail on the forestay, hauled down the storm staysail, set abaft the mainmast, and hoisted close-reefed trysail; midnight, fine and clear; lat. by account, 47° 35'; lat. by observation, 47° 32'; long, by account, 39° 58'; course S. 5° W.; distance, 48 miles.

Sept. 18th.—Altitude of star Polaris at 1h. 15m.- a.m., gave our latitude to be 47° 21' N., of Mirach 47° 22' N., Arietis 47° 25' N.; 4h. a.m. fresh N.N.E. breezes; set the foresail; morning fine and clear, with moderate breeze, out all reefs; set small jib on bowsprit stump and laced the bonnet on trysail; 9h. a.m., set balloon staysail instead of sqnaresail; noon, light easterly airs, subsiding to a flat calm at first dogwatch; 7h. p.m, took in balloou staysail and unrigged the boom; midnight fine and clear; moderate S. E. breezes; lat at noon by account 47° 25' lat. by observation 47° 21'; long, by account 40° 22' W.; long, by observation 40° 5V W.; course S. 84° W.; distance 38 miles.

Sept. 19th.—Cloudy, freshening, southerly wind; 10h. a.m. weather turned in thick, with rain and wind dying out; lowered down squaresail yard on deck; noon, light airs, thick rain; 2h. p.m. same weather; 4h. p.m. stowed the foresail and took bonnet off trysail: wind freshening and lookiog very dirty; evening settled down to hard nor'wester, with a cold driving rain; a very coarse night; lat. at noon by account 47° 18 N.; no observation ; long, by accouut 42° 80'; long, by chronometer 42° 54'; course S. 86° W.; distance 88 miles; variation 3 points W.

Sept. 20th.—Fresh N.W. breezes, overcast, nasty short head sea, noon, fine and clear, sunset short head sea, fresh northerly breeze, clear sky; signalled a brig-rigged steamer, steering east; 8h. p.m. wind moderating, backing to the northward; set the foresail; ship close hauled, going five knots; lat. at noon by account 46° 19'; lat. by observation 46° 20'; long, by account. 45° 30'; by chronometer 45° 51'; course S. 61° W.; distance 124 miles.

Sept. 21st.—Thick drizzling rain, with light northerly airs; set balloon staysail, boomed out; noon same weather; unbent trysail and set the mainsail; 2h. p.m., fresh S.E. wind, thick fog and small rain; 4h. p.m. hove to and took soundings on the grand banks ol Newfoundland, in 38 fathoms pebbly bottom; 6h. p.m. in balloon staysail and unrigged the boom; 7h. p.m. stowed the mainsail, double reefed the trysail, and bent it ready for setting; hard S.E. wind blowing, thick rain and haze, and a nasty beam tea 11h. 30m. set the trysail, the wind veering southerly, yacht going along 10 knots; lat. noon by account, 45° 53'; lat. by observation 45° 51'; long, byaccount 47° 55'; course S. 76° W.; distance 105 miles.

Sept. 22nd.—Morning, l'resh N.W. wind, fine weather; 5h. 30m. a.m., tacked to the northward; 10h. a.m. stowed the foresail, fresh wind and short head sea; noon, Cape Race bore N. 1½ points YV.; distance 101 miles; 3h. 30m. p.m. signalled French mail steamer steering west; evening sharp, brisk northerly wind and jump of head sea; midnight same weather. Meridian altitude of star Alderaimin gave lat. 48° 18' N.; variation 2£ points west; lat. at noon by account 45° 40'; lat. by observation 45° 34'; long, by account 51° 19'long, by chronometer 51° 18'.course S. 85° W. distance 142 miles.

Sept. 23rd.—Morning commences with fresh N.W. breezes, overcast sky; 7h. a.m. set foresail and tacked ship, weather cleared off bright, but wind still in our teeth; 3h. p.m. spoke the Cunard Royal Mail steamer Scotia, homeward bound, who gave us longitude up to the present time of 53'49 against our 53'30; evening moderate southerly breezes and hazy weather, which continued until midnight; variation 2½ points west; lat at noon by account 44° 34'; by observation 44° 38', long, by account 53° 27' W.; long, by chronometer 53° 28'; course S. 59° W.; distance run 108 miles.

Sept. 24th.—Day commences with light southerly airs and cloudy weather; ship carrying only just steerage way; Cape Pine, Newfoundland, bore at noon N.E. b. E.½E.; distant 106 miles; afternoon fine, sunny weather, with a pleasant W.N.W. sailing breeze; compelled to lower foresail for repairs, resetting it at 2h. p.m.; 4h. p.m. out reef of the trysail and laced bonnet; 6h. p.m. continued dead beat on our course; tacked to the northward, evening fine and starlight; moderate westerly breezes; midnight, sky overcast, hazy all round; lat. at noon by account, 45° 19'; by observation 45° 14'; long, by account 55° 2'; by chronometer 55° 3'; course N. 62° W.; distance 76 miles.

Sept. 25th.—Commences light westerly breezes and cloudy weather; 6h. a.m. tacked to the southward; noon, haze cleared away and sun shining brightly; Sable Island bearing W. ¼ S., distance 109 miles; 4h. p m. hove to and took soundings, coarse sand in 23 fathoms, wind coming free, set balloon staysail and laid course; 6h. p.m. hoisted our dingy over the side and boarded the schooner Oleander, ot Beverly, Massachuset, Captain Hind kindly supplied us with fresh fish in a lavish manner; evening closed with light breezes, followed by a clear moonlight night; lat. at noon by account 45° 01'; by observation 44° 58'; long, by account 57° 20' by chronometer 56° 28'; course S. 79° W.; distance 99 miles.

Sept. 26th.—Morning tine and clear; wind freshening from E.N E., and giving up at last: a dead run; 7h. a.m. boomed out the balloon staysail, unbent the trysail and set the mainsail; at 10h. jibing over, and running down on the port tack; noon, moderate breeze and beautifully fine weather; at noon the east end of Sable Island bore W. ¼ N.. distant 31 miles; evening fresh easterly breezes, clear sky, an amplitude of the sun on his setting; the variation observed to be 20° 30' W.; midnight, fresh S.E. wind, and light rain; lat. at noon by account 44° 20'; by observation 44° 10'; long, by account 59° 12'; by chronometer 59° 1'; W. course S. 61° S.; distance 84 miles.

Sept. 27th.—Fresh winds E.S.E. and heavy rain; 10h. a.m., moderating and sun glimmering through the haze; noon, clouds broke into scud, and sea rising; afternoon, flat, calm at times, and a tremendous swell, ship rolling enough to send masts over the side, thick fog, with a driving rain at intervals; midnight, fog cleared away, light westerly airs, and thick rain; course S. 60° W.; lat. by account, noon, 42° 30' N.; lat. by observation 42° 25'; long, by account 63° 40'; long, by chronometer 68° 31'; distance run 215 miles.

Sept. 28th.—Morning, light and variable winds, with thick rain; 11 h. a.m. spoke schooner Louise, of Halifax, Nova Scotia; noon cleared away, fine weather, moderate W.b.N. wind; signalled an Inman mail steamer, steering east; evening, moderate breezes, fine and clear; an amplitude of the sun ia setting gave variation to be 14° 46' W.; by the meridian altitude of the star Fomalhaut the latitude was found to be 40° 38' 22" W.; midnight fresh head winds, tacked ship every faur hours; at noon Cape Sable bore N. b W. distance 79 miles; lat. at noon by account 42° 28'; lat. by observation 43° 18'; long, by account 64° 43'., long, by chronometer 64° 47'; course S. 87s W.; distance run 42 miles.

Sept. 29th.—Morning, moderate westerly head winds, smooth water, bright moon and stars; sunrise, fresh six-knot breeze, which continued until noon; evening, fine and clear, light westerly airs; lat. at noon by account 41° 32' W.; lat. by observation 41° 28'; long, by account 66° 11'; long, by chronometer 66° 06'; course, S. 49° W.; distance run 86 miles.

Sept. 30th.—By an altitude of Aldebaran on the meridian at 4h. a.m. our latitude was 40° 37' 36" N.; morning watch fresh N.W. wind, showery, ship rattling off eight knots; noon sharp squalls and passing showers, the lightship on Nantucket shoals bearing N.W. b N., distant 72 miles; 1h. 30m. p.m., burst the clew from balloon staysail, through the vessel pitching, the sea having risen rather quickly; 1h. 35m. p.m., exchanged signals with the American ship James Fowler, steering cast; evening, fresh northerly wind and squally; 11h. p.m. chronometer's longitude by an altitude of Capella was 71° 15' W.; midnight, hard squalls, ship at times making 11 knots; lat. at noon by account, 40° 16' N.; by observation 40° 10' W.; long, by account 68° 45' W.; long, by chronometer 68° 43' W.; course S. 57° W.; distance 139 miles.

October 1st.—Four a.m. by meridian altitudes of Capella, Aldebaran: Rigel, and Belteguese, our lat. was 40° 12' N.; morning beautifully fine and clear, wind N.W., very puffy; 8h. 30m. the main halyards parted, rove them again and reset mainsail, a number of coasting schooners in sight and vessels outward bound from New York; at 10h. a.m. hove to and took on board Mr. W. Smith, New York pilot from No. 2 boat Edmund Blunt; noon, light, flickering breeze, blight sunshine and sky without a cloud. File Island lighthouse, Long Island in sight, bearing N„ distant 16 miles, and Sandy Hook lightship bearing W.S.W., distant 35 miles; 1h. p.m. breeze entirely died out, subsiding to a flat calm, ship ly ing motionless, and signs of another eight's drifting, at 4h. p.m. steam tug W. H. Hennessey came alongside, and at 4h. 45m. finding there remained not a remote chance of sailing, got towed into harbour, and brought up off the Club House, Staten Island, at 9 o'clock; lat. at noon by account 40° 19; by observation 40° 18'; long, by account 73° 1'; long by chronometer 73° 3'; course N. 89½° W.; distance run, 193 miles.

Livonia in Mid-OceanOn notera en observant les cartes des parcours de Cambria et Dauntless l'année dernière ainsi que celui de Livonia cette année, que ce dernier a choisi une option intermédiaire entre la route de Cambria au Nord, et celle de Dauntless au Sud, conservant un juste milieu.

Bien que la traversée de Livonia en 24 jours et neuf heures du cap Lizard à New York soit plus longue de 28 heures que Cambria l'année précédente, il faut garder à l'esprit que ce dernier a bénéfiait de l'avantage d'un remorqueur pendant trente miles le long de Long Island. De plus, Cambria est parti de Kinsale qui est plus proche de l'Amérique que le cap Lizard, et Livonia est resté à la cape pendant 38 heures tandis que Cambria n'y est resté que pendant une période très courte, de sorte que, tout bien considéré, nous pensons que le capitaine Woods a des raisons d'être satisfait de la manière que lui et sa goélette ont effectué la traversée.

 

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