Catégorie : SHAMROCK 23M

SHAMROCK23mV“Shamrock” a été conçu par William Fife (III) en 1908 en tant que challenger potentiel pour la Coupe de l'America. Les Américains ont refusé le défi, mais Lipton a demandé à Fife de continuer la construction (le navire en cours de construction à Denny).
Dans le dernier défi de 1903, Reliance a marqué la limite extrême dans le développement des machines de course et il y avait déjà eu un mouvement dans l'autre sens vers un type plus sûr et plus sain de yacht.

Problem of rules

UniRules.pngEn 1905, une nouvelle règle a été adoptée aux Etats-Unis et, alors qu'elle était appelée “Jauge Universelle”, elle n'est utilisée que dans ce pays, l'Angleterre et les autres pays européens du yachting ayant adopté une règle destinée à apporter les mêmes changements et connue sous le nom de “Jauge Internationale”. Avec ces deux jauges, un type de bateaux de course nouveau a été produit, beaux, marins, sûrs et pourtant rapides. Les bateaux construits selon ces règles avaient un usage autre que la simple course et avaient une valeur comme bateaux de croisière après leur carrière de course.InterRule.png

LONDON, Sept. 13, 1907. - Sir Thomas Lipton va faire une autre tentative en 1908 pour retrouver la Coupe de l'America pour la Grande-Bretagne. L'annonce a été faite cet après-midi par Sir Thomas à Londres et par le secrétaire de la Royal Irish Yacht Club à Dublin. Le défi a été envoyé au New York Yacht Club par la poste de Dublin aujourd'hui.

Le défi se présente comme suit:

Royal Irish Yacht Club.
Kingstown, Co. Dublin. Ireland.

Sept. 13, 1907.

G, A, Cormack, Esq., Secretary, New York Yacht Club, New York.

Dear Sir,

I am requested by Sir Thomas J. Lipton, Bart., K. C. V. O., to forward you this challenge for the America's Cup—subject to conditions to be mutually agreed upon—the winner of three out of five races to be entitled to the cup. The first race to be sailed on Thursday, 20th August, 1908; the second race to be sailed on Saturday, 22d August 1908, and the third race to be sailed on Tuesday, 25th August, 1905, and further races (if any) to be sailed on each following Thursday, Saturday, and Tuesday until finished.

I therefore, on behalf of the Royal Irish Yacht Club, and in the name of Sir Thomas J. Lipton, a member of the club, challenge to sail a series of matches for the America’s Cup with the yacht Shamrock IV to be built under class J, sixty-eight-foot rating— of the existing New York Yacht Club Rules, which yacht shall conform to the regulations as to length of loadwater line laid down in the deed of gift, against any one yacht constructed under the class above mentioned in the United States of America. The said series of matches to be sailed without time allowance.

The following are the particulars of the challenger vessel viz.:

- Owner, Sir Thomas J. Lipton, Bart., K, C, V, O,.
- Name of yacht, Shamrock IV.
- Rating, to be not over 68 feet rating measurement by the existing New York Yacht Club rules.
- Rig, cutter.

The Custom House measurement will follow as soon as the vessel is measured for registration.

I shall esteem it a favor if you will kindly cable the receipt of this challenge.

Honorary Secretary Royal Irish Yacht Club.

P. S.—-I cabled you to-day saying this letter was going to you per steamship Umbria to-morrow.

R. C. McM. S.

Sir Thomas Lipton's letter accompanying the challenge follows:

Osidge, Southgate, Mlddlesex. Sept. 13, 1907.

Dear Mr. Cormack

You will receive by the same mail a communication from the Honorary Secretary of the Royal Irish Yacht Club conveying a challenge, on my behalf, for a series of races for the America's Cup, to be sailed in 1908.

In challenging with a yacht to be built under the existing rules of the New York Yacht Club I am animated solely by the desire to see the famous America's Cup competed for by a more wholesome and seaworthy type of boat than that which has been adopted in recent contests, and in deciding upon Class J I believe that I am selecting a class which, while conforming to the limits of length prescribed by the deed of gift, will provide a more serviceable size of vessel.

The conditions governing the last contest seem to leave nothing to be desired, but it may be that the question of time limit will have to be considered in view of the altered type of vessel with which I am challenging.

Believing it to be the wish of your club that I should bring to the line the best boat I am able to produce. I am making bold to ask permission to build two boats, each of the same dimensions as set forth in the challenge, reserving to myself the decision as to which boat I shall elect to enter for the contest, and I trust the club may see its way to grant me this concession.

May I venture, even at this early stage, to express the belief that the pleasant relations which have marked the contests in which I have been privileged to participate will be extended to my fourth endeavor to capture the famous cup?

Yours faithfully,

G. A. Cormack, Esq., Secretary New York Yacht Club, New York, U. S. A.

September 26, 1907. -- Sir Thomas Lipton's challenge for another race for America's Cup was presented to the meeting of the New York Yacht Club last evening and declined by a unanimous vote of the club. The challenge called for a race for boats built under the new rule, to rate in the sixty-eight-foot class, and demanded a boat of similar type and size to meet it.

The reply of the New York Yacht Club defined the conditions under which all races hereafter should be sailed, as follows:

Richard C. McMahon Smyth, Esq., Honorary Secretary Royal Irish Yacht Club, Kingstown. County Dublin, Ireland.

Dear Sir

At a meeting of the New York Yacht Club, held this evening, the challenge of the Royal Irish Yacht Club, forwarded by you on behalf of Sir Thomas J. Lipton, Bart., K. C V. O., under date of Sept. 13, 1907, for a match for the America's Cup, was laid before the club.

After a full discussion the following resolutions were offered by Commodore Ledyard, seconded by Commodore J. P. Morgan, and unanimously adopted:

First— That the America s Cup, held by this club as trustee under the deed of gift, is a trophy which stands pro-eminently for speed and for the utmost skill in designing, construction, managing, and handling the competing vessels, and should therefore be sailed for by the fastest and most powerful vessels that can be produced.

Second— That no agreement for any match for the cup should contain any provision which detracts from the merit of the trophy as representing these objects.

Third— That no agreement should be made with any challenger which imposes any other limitation or restriction upon the designer than such as is necessarily implied in the limits of water line length expressed in the deed.

Especially should no agreement be made requiring the contesting vessels to be constructed under any rule of measurement designed, as is the present rule of the New York Yacht Club, to produce a vessel of a special or limited type.

Fourth— That the importance of the event makes it desirable that the contesting vessels should be substantially of the greatest power and size permitted by the limitations of the deed of gift. Such vessels also furnish the most complete test of skill in designing, constructing, managing, and handling.

For these reasons matches for this cup should not be held between vessels of comparatively insignificant power and size. While the defending club cannot require that the challenging vessel be of any given size so long as she is within the limits permitted by the deed of gift, ii should not consent to any limitation upon the power or size of the defending vessel, other than such as is imposed by the deed.

Fifth— The New York Yacht Club is prepared to accept a challenge in accordance with the terms of the deed of gift, and to enter into mutual agreements with any challenger, similar to those which have governed matches for this cup for many years past.

It is also prepared to meet any qualified challenger in a series of races for this Cup, to be sailed boat for boat, without time allowance.

Sixth— The challenge of the Royal Irish Yacht Club fails to conform to the provisions or the deed of gift under which alone this club can accept any challenge in that it gives no dimension of the challenging vessel, and in that it imposes new and special conditions upon the type, size, and power of the defending vessel.

Moreover, it is of such a character that its acceptance would, in the judgment of the club, involve a complete abandonment of the objects for which the trust in respect to the America's Cup was constituted.

Seventh— That a committee be therefore appointed by the Commodore, of which he shall be one, with instructions to decline on behalf of the New York Yacht Club the challenge of the Royal Irish Yacht Club, with an explanation of the reasons of this club for its action.

The undersigned were appointed by the Commodore as the committee mentioned in the resolutions, and in accordance with the instructions therein contained, it is with great regret that we inform you that the New York Yacht Club declines your challenge.

We adopt this mode of communicating the result by cable in order that the action of the result may reach you officially in advance of any information through any other channel.

Very respectfully,

Shamrock 23-metre ne participera donc pas à la Coupe de l'America.

05110SEvolution dans la « Grande Classe »

Conformes à la nouvelle Jauge internationale, deux  23-metre JI sont lancés dès 1907: Brynhild II (un plan de Charles E. Nicholson) et White Heather II de William Fife III. L'année suivante, ce sera le fameux Shamrock dessiné par William Fife mais construit aux chantiers Denny's. A la même époque, figurent encore dans la « Grande Classe» le vieux Britannia ainsi que les grandes goélettes comme celles appartenant à la même série que Meteor, le bateau de l’empereur d'Allemagne.

"Shamrock" - sans numéro, mais appelé par son équipage professionnel "Shamrock 23-metre" était le yacht de course habituel que Thomas Lipton a gardé pendant de nombreuses années et utilisait sur le circuit de course britannique. Il a été particulièrement remarqué pour ses duels contre "Britannia", le yacht du roi, ce qui a fait dire au Kaiser : «mon oncle navigue avec son épicier".

Participation à la Coupe de l'America

01937SLe New York Yacht Club finit par accepter le défi de Sir Thomas Lipton pour 1914 avec son nouveau Shamrock IV dessiné par Charles E. Nicholson mais la Première Guerre mondiale va reporter le challenge en 1920.

04634SLe 10 mai 1920 Shamrock 23-metre a traversé l'Atlantique pour servir de lievre pour SHAMROCK IV. Le capitaine Alfred Diaper, son skipper, était très satisfait du grand sloop de jauge internationale sous son gréement de fortune pendant le voyage, et a dit que les conditions étaient aussi favorables que possible après la première tentative de départ, quand une violente tempête a été rencontrée dans le golfe de Gascogne qui a causé leur retour en toute hâte. Des brises favorables ont été rencontrées au cours de la majeure partie du voyage et le temps réel de entre Falmouth, en Angleterre et Sandy Hook via les Açores était de 23 jours, 8 heures et 24 minutes, tandis que sa vitesse moyenne pour l'ensemble du voyage était de 6,69 nœuds.

Les deux Shamrock ne ramèneront pas la Coupe en Grande Bretagne mais ils ont fait trembler les Américains. On comprend pourquoi le New York Yacht Club a refusé aussi longtemps les défis de Lipton en invoquant des motifs discutables.

00450SRetour de la « Grande Classe »

Après la Première Guerre mondiale, tous reprennent du service, à l'exception de Brynhild II, coulé en 1910. Année après année, Britannia, White Heather II et Shamrock sont rejoints par le cotre Terpsichore, un plan Herbert W. White de 1920, et la goélette Westward dessinée par N.G. Herreshoff en 1910.

Il faudra attendre 1928 pour voir enfin apparaitre dans le circuit deux nouveaux 23-metre (seconde Jauge Internationale, modifiée en 1920). Ce seront Cambria (un plan Fife) et Astra, rejoints l'année suivante par Candida (ces deux derniers sont des plans Nicholson).

Shamrock 23-metre sera détruit en 1932 après la mort de Lipton.